(a) Изучите следующую ситуацию:
Last month Mary didn't feel well. Ted didn't know this, so he didn't go to see her. After Mary got better they met again.
- If I had known that you were ill, I would have visited you.
В прошлом месяце Мэри плохо себя чувствовала. Тэд не знал об этом, поэтому не навестил ее. Они встретились снова, когда Мэри выздоровела.
- If I had known... (Если бы я знал)
Когда вы говорите о прошлом, используйте past perfect (I had done/I had been/I had known и т.д.) после if.
- If I had known you were in Paris, I would have shown you the city. (но я не видел тебя)
- I would have gone out with you if I hadn't had so much work. (но у меня было слишком много работы)
- If he had been looking where he was going, he wouldn't have walked into the wall. (но он не был внимательным)
Никогда не употребляйте would (have) в условной (if) части предложения:
- If I had met you yesterday, I would have invited you to the party. (а не `if I would have met')
Как would так и had могут быть сокращены до 'd:
- If I'd met (= had met) you, I'd have invited (= would have invited) you to the party.
(b) Вы также должны использовать past perfect (I had done) после wish, когда вы сожалеете о чем-то, что случилось (или не случилось) в прошлом:
- I wish I had known that Tim was ill. I would have come to see him. (I didn't know that he was ill.)
- I feel sick. I wish I hadn't eaten fish for dinner. (I ate fish.)
- Do you wish you had studied maths instead of languages? (You didn't study maths.)
- The weather was terrible. We wish it had been warmer. (It wasn't warm.)
Никогда не используйте would have после wish:
- We wish it had been warmer. (не `would have been')
(c) Would have (done) - это форма прошедшего времени от would (do):
- If she had gone to the party yesterday, she would be tired now. (она не усталая сейчас - present.)
- If she had gone to the party yesterday, she would have seen us. (она не видела нас - past.)
Вместо would have можно использовать might have и could have:
- If we'd trained harder, we might have won. (= perhaps we would have won)
- We could have gone out if it hadn't been raining. (= we would have been able to go out)
Об if предложениях и wish см. Unit 36, Unit 37, и Unit 39.